Total Tayangan Laman

Minggu, 12 Juni 2011

Tugas ELT Management


(1) In most big cities in the world, traffic has become a serious problem. (2) Traffic jam takes place, especially in rush hours. (3) There are simply too many cars. (4) This brings about some unexpected effects.
(5) Traffic in Hongkong can be so bad that a vehicle moves along at only 10 KPH, slower than bicycle speed. (6) In Manila, traffic often stops completely. (7) This generates so much exhaust that Manila is now one of the world’s most polluted cities. (8) In Bangkok, children get up at 4 or 5 AM to make it to school by 9:00. (9) They have breakfast in the car or bus.
(10) The number of cars in the world doubled between 1970 and 1990. (11) Currently, there are around 600 million vehicles on roads designed for half that many. (12) The number of cars is expected to double again over the next 20 – 40 years. (13) More roads are being built, but there is no way there can ever be enough roads to handle all these cars.
(14) The wasted fuel from the vehicles causes pollution. (15) The pollution destroys the environment in a number of ways. (16) It also affects personal health. (17) More and more people in large cities suffer from asthma and other breathing disorders than ever before. (18) It is not only humans who suffer. (19) A recent study in Britain repots that birds are losing their hearing because of the traffic noise; as a result, they are unable to sing properly.
(20) No one argues that traffic has become a big problem. (21) We need to find a solution to the world’s traffic jams; otherwise, we will still suffer from diseases.

Choose the best answer by crossing (X) the letter A, B, C, or D based on the text above!
1.     What does the passage mainly discuss?
a.     The wasted fuel from the vehicles causes pollution.
b.     Traffic is a serious problem in most big cities.
c.      The number of cars in the world increase every year.
d.     People face many problems in their live.
2.     Based on the text, these are the reason why  traffic jam become a serious problem in most big city, except...
a.     The wasted fuel from the vehicles causes pollution
b.     The traffic often stops completely
c.      The number of cars increase every year
d.     The number of cars in the world doubled between 1970 and 1990
3.     The word “it” in paragraph four line 2 refers to.....
a.     Vehicle
b.     Environment
c.      Wasted fuel
d.     Pollution
4.     The pollution destroys the environment in a number of ways. (Paragraph 4).
The closed meaning of the underlined word in the sentence is, except....
a.     Break
b.     Damage
c.      Harm
d.     Loss
5.     The problem of traffic jam causes polution for environment,
We should prevent it before it’s getting worse.
The most appropriate conjunction for connecting two sentences above is......
a.     Although
b.     Otherwise
c.      Nevertheles
d.     Whereas





surat PPL




 
KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL
UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET
FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIT PROGRAM PENGALAMAN LAPANGAN
Jalan Ir. Sutami 36 A Surakarta 57126 Telp. (0271) 669124 Fax. (0271)648939



Hal : Pendaftaran PPL                                                              Surakarta, __________________

Kepada
Yth. Ketua Program
__________________
Jurusan
FKIP – UNS
SURAKARTA

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini :
Nama                      : _____________________
NIM/Semester         : _____________________
Program                  : _____________________
Agama                    : _____________________
Keterangan             : RSBI / tidak *)

Dengan ini mengajukan permohonan untuk di daftar sebagai calon peserta PPL FKIP-UNS pada semester : Agustus – Januari TA. 2011/2012.  Saya berjanji akan mematuhi segala peraturan yang berlaku di sekolah mitra nanti (Solo dan luar Solo) bersama ini kami lampirkan foto copy kwitansi pendaftaran PPL.

Pemohon,


_______________________

Mengetahui,
Pembimbing Akademis


_______________________

*) : Coret salah satu
Perhatian :
1.      Diisi dengan huruf balok
2.      Harap anda menulis NAMA dan NIM yang benar
3.      Menunjukan Lunas Pembayaran biaya PPL
4.      Mau ditempatkan PPL di Solo raya (di luar kota Solo)
5.      *) = berjilbab / bercadar


Senin, 23 Mei 2011

MICROSKILLS AND MACROSKILLS OF FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS


MICROSKILLS AND MACROSKILLS OF FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS

A. Listening
1. Microskills
a.         Discriminate among the distinctive sounds of English.
b.         Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short term memory.
c.         Recognise English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structures, intonation contourse, and their roles in signaling information.
d.        Recognise reduced forms of words.
e.         Distinguish word boundaries, recognise a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance.
f.          Process speech at different rate of delivery.
g.        Process speech containing pauses, errors, corrections, and other performance variables.
h.        Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl forms.
i.           Detect sentence constituents and distinguish between major and minor constituents.
j.           Recognise that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
k.         Recognise cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

2. Macroskills
l.          Recognise the communicative functions of utterance according to situations, participants, goals.
m.       Infer situations, participants, goals using real-word knowledge.
n.        From events, ideas, and so on, describes, predict outcomes, infer links and connections between events, deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification.
o.         Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
p.         Use facial, kinesic, body language, and other nonverbal clues to decipher meanings.
q.        Develop and use a battery of listening strategies, such as detecting key words, guessing the meaning of words from context, appealing for help, and signalling comprehension or lack thereof.

B. Speaking
1. Microskills
  1. Produce differences among English phonemes and allophonic variants.
  2. Produce chunks of language of different lengths.
  3. Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonation contours.
  4. Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.
  5. Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) to accomplish pragmatic purposes.
  6. Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.
  7. Monitor one’s own oral production and use various strategic devices – pauses, fillers, self corrections, backtracking – to enhance the clarity of the message.
  8. Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs etc.) systems (tense, agreement, pluralisation), word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.
  9. Produce speech in natural constituents: in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentence constituents.
  10. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.
  11. Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

2. Macroskills
l.        Appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals.
m.      Use appropriate styles, registers, implicature, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversation rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.
n.        Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new information and given information, generalisation and exemplification.
o.        Convey facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language.
p.        Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasising key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.


C. Reading
1. Microskills
a.         Discriminate among distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.
b.         Retain chuncks of language of different lengths in short term memory.
c.         Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.
d.        Recognise a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance.
e.         Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.
f.          Recognise that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
g.         Recognise cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses
h.         Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.

2. Macroskills
i.           Recognise the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation.
j.           Recognise the communicative functions of written texts, according to form and purpose.
k.         Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge.
l.           From described events, ideas, etc. Infer links and connections between events, deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification.
m.       Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
n.         Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata.
o.         Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from context, and activating schemata for the interpretation of texts.





D. Writing
1. Microskills
a.         Produce graphemes and ortographic patterns of English.
b.         Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.
c.         Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order patterns.
d.        Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisastion), patterns and rules.
e.         Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.
f.          Use cohesive devices in written discourse.

2. Macroskills
g.         Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse.
h.         Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts according to form and purpose.
i.           Convey links and connections between events,  and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification.
j.           Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing.
k.         Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text.
l.           Develop and use a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately assessing the audience’s interpretation, using pre-writing devices, writing with fluency in the first draft, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing.